Alternate Titles: Brasil, Federative Republic of Brazil, República Federativa do Brasil, Vera Cruz Brazil, officially Federative Republic of Brazil, Portuguese República Federativa do Brasil, country of South America which occupies half the continent’s landmass. It’s the fifth largest state in the planet, exceeded in size just by Russian federation, Canada, China, and the United States, although the area of its is actually higher than that of the forty eight conterminous U.S. states. Brazil faces the Atlantic Ocean along 4,600 miles (7,400 km) of coastline and shares for more than 9,750 miles (15,700 km) of inland borders with every South American country except Ecuador and Chile – specifically, Uruguay to the south; Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia to the southwest; Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela, Suriname, Guyana, and French Guiana to the north. Brazil stretches roughly 2,700 miles (4,350 km) out of north to south and from east to west to develop a great irregular triangle which entails a broad range of subtropical and tropical landscapes, including low, plateaus, savannas, and wetlands mountains. Brazil contains the majority of the Amazon River basin, that has the world’s largest river system as well as the world’s most extensive virgin rainforest. The land has no desert, high mountain, or maybe arctic environments.

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Brazil is actually the fifth most populous country on Accounts and Earth for one third of Latin America’s population. The majority of the inhabitants of Brazil are actually concentrated along the eastern seaboard, though the capital of its, Brasília, is situated far inland and increasing amounts of migrants are actually moving to the interior. Rio de Janeiro, in the eyes of a lot of the planet, is still the preeminent icon of Brazil. The nation’s burgeoning cities, huge hydroelectric and industrial complexes, mines, as well as fertile farmlands make it one of the world’s major economies. Nevertheless, Brazil struggles with severe social inequalities, environmental degradation, intermittent monetary crises, and also an at times deadlocked political system.

Brazil is different in the Americas because, following independence from Portugal, it didn’t fragment into individual countries as did Spanish and British possessions in the region; instead, it retained the identity of its through the intervening centuries and a wide range of types of government. Due to that hegemony, the Portuguese language is actually universal except among Brazil’s native Indians, particularly those in the more remote reaches of the Amazon basin. At the turn of the 21st century, Brazilians marked the 500th anniversary of Portuguese connection with a blend of public celebration and deprecation.

Ronald Milton Schneider
The Land
The Brazilian landscape is actually complex and immense, with interspersed rivers, mountains, wetlands, and plateaus adjoining other main functions and traversing the boundaries of regions and states.

Brazil. Physical features map. Includes locator.
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Geographic areas The Brazilian government has grouped the country’s states into 5 sizeable geographic and statistical units known as the Major Regions (Grandes Regiões): North (Norte), Northeast (Nordeste), Central West (Centro Oeste), Southeast (Sudeste), and South (Sul). The tropical North – comprising the states of Acre, Rondônia, Amazonas, Pará, Tocantins, Roraima, and Amapá – covers more than two-fifths of Brazilian territory and includes the largest portion of Amazon rainforest and parts of the Guiana and Brazilian highlands; however, the region accounts for a limited proportion of the nation’s population and economic output.

The Northeast, which experiences several of the nation’s hottest and driest conditions, has almost one fifth of Brazil’s land area and much more than one fourth of the population. It has the states of Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Alagoas, Sergipe, Bahia, and Pernambuco, the latter like the island of Fernando de Noronha, some 225 miles (360 km) off the Atlantic coast. The region’s oldest cities date from the 16th century, if the Portuguese first established sugarcane plantations there. The Northeast accounts for one fifth of the nation’s agricultural production, but the manufacturing and service sectors lag far behind those of the Southeast and South, as well as the unemployment rate continues to be high.

The Southeast covers just one tenth of Brazil’s territory but has two fifths of the population of its and also the greatest concentration of agricultural and industrial production of the nation. The region includes São Paulo state, and that is the nation’s demographic and economic heartland, landlocked Minas Gerais, whose extremely name (meaning “Extensive Mines”) testifies to better mineral wealth, as well as the populous coastal states of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. The city of Rio de Janeiro, the national capital from 1763 to 1960, remains Brazil’s primary cultural and tourist centre.

The South, which stretches below the Tropic of Capricorn, includes the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. It occupies an area almost as huge as the isle of Britain but will be the smallest of Brazil’s regions. The diversified economy of its consists of strong manufacturing, agriculture, and service sectors. The South has approximately one seventh of the nation’s population, including lots of people of European ancestry, especially from Italy and Germany. The South’s tourist trade to some extent is dependent on the breathtaking Iguaçu Falls, during the Argentine border.

The Central-West consists of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, and Mato Grosso do Sul, as well as the Federal District, in which Brasília is located. The region covers nearly one fourth of Brazil, including vast wetlands, semiarid highlands, and forested valleys. A tiny proportion of the nation’s population lives there, but an increasing number of settlers have been moving into the region as well as extending the agricultural frontiers of its.

Brazil is actually a predominantly tropical country known for its extensive Amazon lowlands; however, highlands cover a lot of the national territory. Brazil’s physical attributes will be grouped into 5 main physiographic divisions: the Guiana Highlands in the North, the Amazon lowlands, the Pantanal in the Central West, the Brazilian Highlands (including the comprehensive coastal ranges), as well as the coastal lowlands.

Guiana Highlands
Brazil shares the rugged Guiana Highlands with French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, and Venezuela. Forested mesas and mountain ranges, scenic waterfalls, as well as white water rivers characterize the place. Probably The highest point in Brazil is actually Neblina Peak, which reaches 9,888 feet (3,014 metres) along the Venezuelan border in the Serra do Imeri. The Serra da Pacaraima, farther east, rises to 9,094 feet (2,772 metres) at Mount Roraima, exactly where the borders of Venezuela, Guyana, and Brazil meet. The less rugged Acaraí and Tumuc-Humac (Tumucumaque) ranges border on the Guianas.

Amazon lowlands The Amazon lowlands are actually widest along the eastern base of the Andes. They narrow to the east until, downstream of Manaus, just a narrow ribbon of yearly flooded plains (várzeas) separates the Guiana Highlands to the north from the Brazilian Highlands to the south. The várzeas fan out once more as the watercourse approaches the Atlantic, but no delta extends into the ocean. The basin’s most prevalent topographical features are lightly undulating hills called terra firme (“solid ground”), composed of layers of alluvial soil which were deposited almost as 2.5 million years subsequently and ago uplifted to positions above flood level. Shallow oxbow lakes and wetlands are actually found all over the region.

The enormous Pantanal, an extension of the Gran Chaco plain, is actually a region of marshes and swamps in northwestern Mato Grosso do Sul and southern Mato Grosso states as well as, to a lesser extent, in eastern Bolivia and northern Paraguay ; it’s among probably the largest freshwater wetlands in the planet, covering some 54,000 square miles (140,000 square km). The Pantanal is actually dissected by the effluents of top of the Paraguay River, which overflows the banks of its during the wet season, inundating all but the tops of scattered levees and minimal hills. )